Aplastic anemia

Disease information

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Aplastic anemia
Aplastic anemia.

Serious illness characterized by a low yield of the function of the bone marrow.

The heart is often filled by fat cells that replace those that produce blood cells.

It affects all series of blood cells:

Red blood cells,

White blood cells and.


Anyone can be affected at any age.


Half of the cases is due to drugs, especially immunosuppressive, or chemicals such as aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene and the like)

In other cases, the reason probably is an autoimmune disease caused by serious or for reasons not identified.

Infections caused by the reduction of white cells, which are those that protect against them.

Pallor and fatigue stem from the lack of red blood cells and the tendency to bleed because of the lack of platelets.

Signs and symptoms.


Weakness, fatigue, faintness and shortness of breath.

Frequent infections.

Spontaneous bleeding nose, mouth, rectum, vagina, gums and other areas, including central nervous system.

Red spots or bleeding under the skin.

Unexplained bruises.

Ulcers on the lining of the mouth, throat, vagina and rectum.

Risk Factors and Prevention.

Family history of aplastic anemia.

Genetic factors such as anemia associated with congenital hipoplástica.

Use of certain medications and drugs.

Contact or, more commonly, inhalation of toxic compounds, such as benzene, at work.

Serious illness recently.


Avoid prolonged exposure to toxic components such as benzene, used in many industrial chemicals.

Do not take any medicine unless necessary.

Diagnosis and Treatment.

Diagnosis is made by history and physical examination by a doctor.

The history - making any of the medicines that can produce it, or contact with chemicals commented is a great help to guide the diagnosis.

Usually require testing of blood, nose, throat, urine and bone marrow.

General Measures.

Usually, the cause of hair loss, and some patients temporarily use a wig.

Keep your mouth scrupulously clean to reduce the possibility of infection.

Brush your teeth often with a soft brush.

Rinse your mouth with a solution of hydrogen peroxide and water in equal shares, or a mouthwash if the doctor prescribes it.


The best treatment is bone marrow transplant:

The bone marrow transplant requires a donor with compatible antigens; the best donors are the twins.

The donated marrow is gradually inserted into the veins of the patient, to try to replace defective cells in the bone marrow by healthy cells.

To prevent rejection of transplanted cells, are used immunosuppressive drugs.

Your physician may prescribe:

Antibiotics to prevent or treat an infection.

Medical rinses to remove infections of the mouth by a fungus.


Go back to your normal activities after treatment. Diet.

You may need iron supplements or vitamins, check with your doctor.


Poor response to treatment due to infections and uncontrollable bleeding.

Rejection of the transplanted cells.

Attack the body by the transplanted cells.

Tell your doctor if:

One of the following happens after the transplant:


Any sign of infection such as inflammation anywhere in the body. Does not always appear.

redness, tenderness or pain.


Jaundice (yellow skin and eyes)

Joint pain.

Urinary discomfort or.

Reduction of urine in a single day.


The complications are fatal in 50% to 70% of the cases affected by severe aplastic anemia.

This condition is curable provided they can identify the cause and treatment has good results.

Anemia caused by immunosuppressive drugs usually heal spontaneously after stopping the drug.

The total restoration usually takes 6 to 8 months.

More information.

Inforsalud Health - Internet - web health.


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