is the involuntary absence of rest compensatorio. It is pronounced by the disturbance of the quality or the amount of dream with repercussions on the diurnal
1. Structure of the dream.
structure. As much it is so it is even spoken, of the architecture of the dream. One consists of
succession of 4 to 5 cycles of 90 minutes
cycle is made up, based on the rythmical waves emitted by the brain, of five stages of unequal duration.
The stages between the 1 and the 4 correspond to the slow dream. Stage 5 corresponds to the denominated paradoxical dream.
ervigilia or to an anxiety related to exogenous causes.
2. To wake up precocious (terminal
waves of waking up) and theta appearance of waves.
It is the slight dream. In him, the person is slept completely. The waves alpha are absentees and appears the fundamental element of the state of the dream: the tips accompanied by complexes
Stage 3 and 4.
It is the deep dream. In him an appearance of slow waves is registered delta that are replacing progressively to the tips. The sleepy subject is insensible to the noises, its vital
are assured to the minimum.
It represents 20 % of the total dream approximately. Also it receives the name of paradoxical dream, because in encefalograma the appearance of waves next to those of the watch state is registered.
During this stage, expresses take place ocular movements (REM: Rapid Eyes Movements) the
tone is reduced to the minimum, the heart rates and
become irregular and the onírica
At the end of stage 5 the sleepy subject
cycle. From it can here appear another stage 1, beginning to the following cycle. This new stage 1, that only lasts some seconds, is often, imperceptible, safe in some particular circumstances: pain, noise, cold.
cycle is closed by
stage 5 of paradoxical dream.
It is necessary to consider that the different stages from the dream last variable, based on the cycle during which they are developed.
Both first cycles include the five stages of the dream with
phase of paradoxical dream of relatively short duration. The following cycles do not entail the stages of deep dream, nevertheless, have
long phase of enough paradoxical dream.
One takes place then,
imbalance between the first third at night, in where they take place mainly, the stages of the deep dream, stage 3 and 4) and the rest at night.
According to the people, the duration of
stage of the dream is variable. Nevertheless it
been verified which the amount of deep dream slow (stages 3 and 4) remains relatively constant, even in the cases in which the dream necessity is different between individuals.
However, in which it concerns to the paradoxical dream, great differences exist, in those people greater than they need to sleep more. The people who sleep more than what they need, they cause an increase of the duration of the paradoxical dream (dreams and nightmares) and often rise exhausted.
of the different structures.
stage of the dream
its importance. Numerous carried out experiments with voluntary people, have allowed to evaluate the respective
of the different stages.
After the deprivation of the dream, the studied subjects see modified the distribution of the different stages after enjoying one first night of dream complete.
They present / display an important increase of the deep dream (3 and 4) being able to represent until 70 % of the average duration of the cycles. The organism looks for then, the recovery of the lost dream, privileging the stages 3 and 4, that are revealed as the dream recuperator of the physical fatigue.
The paradoxical dream is the one that allows the brain to rememorizar the previous events, the conducts and the learnings. This
serves to eliminate the psychic and
fatigue. The experiments made with sleepy people to whom it awoke of systematic form, frequently of conciliation of the paradoxical dream, have allowed to state that the absence of the onírica phase leads progressively to madness. To dream is
biological necessity. In case of
, it is necessary to use
therapy that it respects, in the greater possible measurement, the architecture of the dream.
3. Mechanisms of the dream.
At level of the reticular zone, one is the center of the dream and the center of watch.
The center of the dream is under the dependency of other
structures: the cortico - talámico
and the rinencefalo - hipotalámico
. The dream appears when
disconnection of the reticular
with the rest of the brain takes place. This disconnection is favored by comfortable positions (knocked down
or sitting) and the absence of sensorial information (closed eyes. The set produces
The biochemical starting of the dream would be from the braking of the noradrenérgicos nuclei that take part in the watch.
noradrenaline is observed and therefore,
reduction of the
of the catecolaminérgicas neurons. The slow dream appears in
second time. Its appearance is in favor conditional by the stimulation of the serotoninérgicos nuclei and of the serotonin liberation. In the paradoxical dream
reactivation of the noradrenérgicos nuclei with an elevated serotonin level takes place. Noradrenaline takes part then, as much in the state of watch as in the paradoxical dream. The noradrenérgicos and serotoninérgicos nuclei are under the permanent control of different neurons, mainly of the colinérgicas neurons and GABA - érgicas.
4. Biological rates.
With respect to the alternancia sueño / vigilia, numerous biological phenomena follow one another of rythmical form. All variation of quality or amount of nocturnal dream can be the
of the dream.
The manifestations of the
. Although one regroups them in three great categories: the difficulties of conciliation of the dream, to wake up precocious and you will wake up nocturnal frequent (sleeplessness)
1. Difficulties of conciliation of sueño (insomnio initial)
Stage 1 is extended (as average does not have to exceed 5 % of the total dream) Often, this type of
state of hyperwatch or to an anxiety related to exogenous causes.
2. To wake up precocious (terminal
This type of
is less frequent than the rest. It can be originated by
of physiological type. Usually he is bound often to the excessive ingestion of somníferos.
3. Frequent you will wake up nocturnal (sleeplessness)
One is an
complete absence of dream. It can have relation with an acute anxiety or
camouflaged depressive state.
1. Hygiene of life.
One will be due to resort in the first place, to simple methods that they can be useful,
that nevertheless, fall frequently in the forgetfulness. It is necessary to respect
correct hygiene of life.
Hour to sleep.
It is necessary to lie down when they begin to feel the first symptoms of the dream (bostezos, heavy diminution of the
capacity, eyelids, adormecimiento. These symptoms are announcing of the initiation of the first cycle of the dream. If the decision is not taken then to go to the bed, half an hour later it will be difficult to conciliate the dream, since the organism will be again in the heat of
The upheavals of conciliation of the dream are very frequent in case of trips or irregular or nocturnal schedules of work.
By all previously exposed, it is necessary to acquire
commitment between the exigencies of the life partner - professional and those of our biorritmos.
The supper must be light, completes and balanced. He is recommendable to ingest glúcidos and poor rich foods in in fats. The greasy bodies persist during
time in the
, producing slowness sensation. The fast sugars are due to avoid that cause one hipoglucemia that can at night be reason for
The exciting drinks (
, soda waters with caffein) and the
completely are advised against in people who suffer
The violent sports must be avoided during the afternoon - night. Nevertheless, the physical exercise
positive effects in the dream whenever it is practiced during the day.
2. The hipnóticos medicines.
The benzodiazepinas induce the precocious appearance of the paradoxical dream, increasing also, the density of this one with respect to the one of the slow dream. On the other hand,
quantitative diminution of deep the slow dream takes place (3 and 4)
The diminution of the dream REM
correlation with the increase of comfort of the dream and the diminution of restlessness and
, in contrast to the
dream, in which the sensation of deep dream
generally correlation with the amount of SWS (time of dream of slow waves) The degree of increase of
fast beta can have correlation with the fatigue when waking up and the sensation of to have slept without resting truely (Goodman and Gilman)
The dependency to benzodiazepinas as well as the rules to diminish it, well are known by the professionals of the
reason why we will not enter it.
One is nonbenzodiazepínicos hipnóticos of new
. These new molecules are ansiolíticas than hipnóticas. It seems that they
less farmacodependencia than the previous ones.
The prescribed neurolépticos more in
with nightmares, belong to the chemical group of the fenotiazinas. They can produce sensation of
and ortostática hypotension during the day due to his long plasmática half - life.
The medicinal plants exert less intense
therapeutic effect and less fast than the rest of the synthesis therapies and for that reason it is recommended to begin with them before arriving at powerful medicines
Nevertheless, they do not seem to cause in any case phenomena of farmacodependencia nor of modification of the architecture of the dream.
progressive relief with good results can be used to begin
deshabituación offering. In this case, both therapies are due to associate (medicines of synthesis with medicinal plants) diminishing after some weeks and of progressive form, the use of the chemotherapy.
The medicinal plants that can be used in the treatment of the
of the dream are the following ones: Albar
Plants adapted for this