Greater plantain, plantain lanceolado; al. Breit wegerich;
plantain (greater, small)
Leaf, aerial parts.
The largest plantain or plantain is
herbaceous plant with leaves clustered in rosette with
blade and petiole entire oval that widens at the base. The flowers of membranous calyx and corolla, are grouped into cylindrical spikes, tight, elongated. Other species are distinguished by the morphology of the leaves, as well as the length and aspect of the axis florífero.
The two species mentioned are very
throughout Europe and North Africa (
lanceolata) as well as in West Asia. It grows mostly in limestone terrain, in
and along roads.
The leaves of
major contains sugars, traces of alkaloids and iridoides which are also found in the flowers, acids, phenols and flavonoids. Have also been several osídicos acid esters caféico:
(verbascósido) and plantamósido (plantamajósido =) whose distribution varies depending on the subspecies. The seed contains mucilages and lipids  The subspecies
similar composition: iridoides (Aucuba, catalpol, Asperulo) 703] flavonoids (7 - glucosil - apigenol, escutelareína) tannins, triterpenes, acids, phenols, loliólido. and an acid that includes
number of mucilage polysaccharide fractions 
The Asia - plantain often considered
variety of Asian
. Major also contains iridoides (Aucuba and derivatives) The polysaccharide from the seeds of this variety is composed of
skeleton xylose (SS1? 4) to join in 3 remains arabinogalacturónicos or rabinoglucurónicos. The seed also contains several flavonoids and act.
The species of plantain have
bronchodilator, tested in guinea pig. The Aucuba and other iridoides are known for their antimicrobial properties. The same is the verbascósido happens to, which is bacteriostatic (0. 5 mg / ml) compared with Clostridium sporogenesand other acid esters osídicos caféico that present toxic properties compared to micro - phytopathogenic
and fungi - 709] It also is the verbascósido
shown that, the lipoxygenase inhibitor of white blood cells, reduces the formation of leukotriene B4, as others leukotrienes involved in
and inflammatory  The hydrophilic mucílagos presented by outsourcing,
been demonstrated that the aqueous extract
an interest in the man, in case of
In folk medicine, the anti lantenes are in external use: cataplasms, eye baths, gargarismos (
) The leaves can be used as
softener antipruritic in specialty
indicated in the treatment of skin
. In some European countries, plantain and their preparations are used in the treatment of
manifestations, etc. Eastern medicine uses
. Asian case of
, coughing, fever,
and in various
ailments. The trials of acute and subacute have shown that the road criomolturada not cause any manifestation toxic rat, 2 g / kg, 300 and 900 mg / kg / day, per os)
In Spain authorizing the use of this plant for acute
. Treatment of
short underground stem that rises on
rosette of leaves in limbo oval, 6 - 8 cm long and 4 - 5 cm wide, it narrows sharply in
winged leaf stalk. The blade is wide,
hairless, whole or with slightly sinuous and jagged edges. Presents from 5 to 11 nerves marked, arched, unbranched converging towards the end of the road. The valuation of iridoides in drugs and their preparations can be made by HPLC.
. GROG et
Zur Kenntnis iridoider Pflanzenstoffe.
Pharmazie, 22, 315 - 321, 1967.
. RAVN and L. BRIMER.
Structure and antibacterial
of plantamajoside to caffeic.
sugar acid ester from
major subsp. major.
Phytochemistry, 27, 3433 - 3437, 1988.
. Andary, M.
. MOTTE - FLORAC,
. GARGADENNEC, R.
Les esters caféiques du genre
. Identification et valeur.
Plantes Méd. Phytother. 22, 17 - 22, 1988.
M. S. AHMAD, M.
. AHMAD and S. M. OSMAN.
new hydroxyolefinic acid from
major seed oil.
Phytochemistry, 19, 2137 - 2139, 1980.
. BIANCO, M. Guise,
. PASSACANTILLI and
. FRENCH -
and phenylpropanoid glycosides from new sources.
J. Nat. Prod. 47, 901 - 902, 1984;
M. Brautigam and G. FRANZ.
Structural features of
. 51, 293 - 297, 1985; see also id, Schleim -
polysaccharide aus Spitwegerichblättern, Dtsch. Apoth. Ztg.
125, 58 - 62, 1985.
. Oshi and
Two new Iride glucosidase of
. 44, 204 - 206, 1982.
M. Tomoda, N. SHIMIZU,
. SHIMA, R. Gonda and
Plant mucilages XXXIV. The location of O - acetyl groups and.
the structural features of
, the poly - Mucous.
SACCHARIDE from the seeds of
major var. asiatica.
Chem. Pharm. Bull. 32, 2182 - 2186, 1984.
. KOICHEV, M. MARKOV and I. ANGELOVA.
Pharmacologic clinical study of
Probl. Pneumol. Ftiziatr. 10, 68 - 74, 1982 (in Russian, summary.
. Ishiguro, M. YAMAKI and S. TAMAGI.
Studies on the
related compounds. I. On the antiobiotic.
BIAL aucubigenin and
of certain Iride aglycones.
Yakugaku Zasshi, 102, 755 - 759, 1982.
. VI -
DAL - OLLIVIER, M. LAGET, G.
and Z. Afzal - Raffi.
Study in the chemical constituents of
cynops L. and.
antibacterial avaluation of verbascoside.
Pharm. Helv record. 6, 184 - 187, 1989.
. Andary, G. KOVACS and
Caffeic acid esters as inhibitors in vitro of plant - pathogenic
teria and fungi.
Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 17, 175 - 184, 1989; see also: Y. SHO -
YAMA, M. MATSUMOTO et I. Nishioka, Four caffeoyl glyco -
tissue from sides of Rehmannia
, Phytoche -
Mistry, 25, 1633 - 1636, 1986.
. OKUDA, S. NISHIBE and S. ARICHI.
Effects of caffeoylglycosides on metabolism in ARACHIDONATE.
. 53, 148 - 153, 1987; on the other properties.
Pharmacological the esters of caffeic acid, see:
Andary, Activité pharmacologique of certain esters of the ACI -
3. 4 - dihydroxycinnamique, Bull. Liaison Groupe - Polyphase.
nols, 11, 544 - 553, 1982.
. MIETHING, W. HOLZ and R. Hansel.
HPLC - Aucubin in Gehaltsbestimmung von und Zube - Drugs.
Pharm. Ztg. 131, 746 - 747, 1986.
, docier toxicological
whose treatment is appropriate in this plant.