Tree forty shields; Allem. Mädchen Haar Baum;
tree of the East, the
(or better, gin - kyo) is dioecious: male reproductive tract reduced to
reproductive tract peculiar that, after fertilization by sperm (zoidogamia) gives an egg consistency and drupácea unpleasant odor. The leaves in the form of
range of bright green, are inserted into long petioles emerging from the leaf sheath on the stem, hold significant nerviación.
is the last representative of
class of plants that formed part of the
in Mesozoic times. Cultivated for centuries in the temples of the Far East, is also found in other countries as ornamental trees in parks and avenues. In his
height of 30 - 40 meters and its branches form
broad crown. The Ginkgoales, disappeared after the upper Pliocene, the only remaining G.
. The species is grown for the pharmaceutical industry in Korea, Japan and southwestern France.
Many compounds have been identified in the road:
dare, alcohols and fatty acids, polyols, sterols, sequiterpenos acid, 6 - hydroxy - kinurénico.
The compounds with pharmacological
are terpenes and polyphenols.
• Terpenes. Have been isolated in addition to
Sesquiterpenes (bilobalido) diterpenos biogenetics from
cation pimaradienil: ginkgólidos
, M, J. These molecules have
very peculiar structure: 3 cycles lactones and
nucleus tetrahydrofuran attached to
spiro nonane replaced by
- butyl, that structure defines
cavity with strong electron density.
• Polyphenols. They are mainly flavonoids. Biflavonas 3'8: bilobetol and its derivative methoxyl in 5 minutes, ginkgetol, esciadopitisina, amentoflavona. Glucoramnósidos in flavonol 3: kenferol, isorramnetol, siringetol, 7 - glucosil kenferol and 3 - glucosil quercetol. It is also noted the presence of glucorramnósidos in quercetol and 3 of krenferol esterified at 6 " (eg on glucose) by the acid cumare (=
- hydroxy (
) Cinnamic) and triósidos. The extract also contains acetone proantocianidoles: oligomers flavonols that danlugar to delfinidol and cianidol.
The animal experimentation demonstrates, in preparations enriched in flavonoids, an
at all levels of the
Vasodilatadora action at the
(action on the smooth
fiber) increased venous tone, decreased capillary permeability, increased irrigation brain, demonstrated on different models of ischemia, hypoxia and experimental
edema. The effects are manifested both on the
such as its impact on neurological and behavioral.
increases the glucose content and ATP
to hypoxia. Collectors of free radicals, the polyphenols of G.
inhibit lipid peroxidation of membranesThis
also been demonstrated in rat
also inhibits platelet aggregation, stimulates the
The ginkgólido B is an inhibitor of PAF - acetic
intercellular mediator involved in platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, the initial process of atherogenesis, the hiperpermeabilidad capillary. These properties contain interesting clinical prospects for this type of molecules, particularly as an adjuvant in therapeutic antiasmáticas.
Observations on the Man.
Have been published dozens of clinical trials (most made
double - blind) Through these studies have demonstrated the
levels. Of them, we can highlight their ability to produce
protective effect against hypoxia, significant increase in wakefulness in the elderly with poor behavior (in prolonged treatment) improving memory, improving
, dizziness. and behavior (short - term memory, mood instability, vigil. in case of
insufficiency [251, 252]
toxicity of the extract is void: There are no changes in rat Biological histological or after prolonged administration (30 to 60 mg / kg / day, per os) The
. L. 50 (mouse, I.
. is 1. 65 g / kg. The side effects observed in humans are extremely rare: minor digestive
. Criomolturados extracts are currently used to treat the symptoms associated with
insufficiency, trastronos behavior of the elderly (mood, memory.
of the microcirculation, syndromes of
, is also prescribed in case of veno - lymphatic insufficiency and proctología.
In Spain authorizing the use of this plant for
, varicose veins and
in the elderly. Etiology of
brain deficiencies. Dizziness.
The leaves of
is polymorphous: it can be very divided, bilobulada or nearly full. On consists of peciolo two beams weaving drivers who fall into the top of this and also in limbo as
dichotomous way, giving the drug
stripe (on both sides) very characteristic. The analytical study of the extracts
conducted by HPLC.
. G. NASR.
chemical substances of
L. Ginkgoacées) Dérivés flavoniques (hétérosides - esters) and quinoléiques carboxyliques. Essais pharmacologiques préliminaires.
Doctoral Thesis of de l'Universite, mention Sciences, Lois Pasteur University, Strasbourg, 1987.
potent platelet - activating factor antagonists isolated from
L. Chemistry, pharmacology and clinical applications.
Drugs of the
, 12, 643 - 699, 1987.
. WEINGES, M. HEPP and
Isolierung und Stukturaufklärung eines neuen Ginkgolids.
Liebigs Ann. Chem. 521 - 526, 1987.
M. JOLY, M. HAAG - BERURIER and R. ANTON.
The 5' - méthoxybilobétine, joins biflavone extrait du
Phytochemistry, 19, 1999 - 2002, 1980.
. VICTOIRE, M. HAAG - BERRURIER,
. LOBSTEIN - GUTH, J.
. BALZO and R. ANTON.
Isolation of flavonol glycosides from
. 54, 245 - 247, 1988.
. LOBSTEIN - GUTH, M. HAAG - BERRURIER and R. ANTON.
Quercetin coumaroyl glucorhamnoside from
Phytochemistry, 26, 2869 - 2870, 1987.
J. Totta and
. J. VLIETINCK.
Produits et Phytothérapeutique
J. Pharm. Belg. 41, 330 - 361, 1983.
L. Untersuchungen zur Qualität, Wirkung, Wirsamkeit und Unbedenlichkeit.
Z. für Phytother. 9, 119 - 127, 1988.
For different aspects of the clinical pharmacology and of these extracts, see several
special issue de la presse Médicale.
Presse Méd. 15, 31) 1986.
. BRAQUET, M.
. DROY, B. BONHOMME and J.
Effects of free radicaux sur l'activité électrophysiologique of the
isolée of Rat.
J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 8, 273 - 277, 1985.
. Schaffler and
. W. Reehan.
Doppelblindie zur Wirkung hypoxieprotektiven eines standardized
- Präparates nach Mehrfachverabreichung an Gesunde Probanden.
Arzneim. Forsch. 35, 1283 - 1286, 1985.
. VOELP and M. KLASSEN.
Study of the long - term action of
extract on vigilance and mental performance as determined by means of quantitative EEG and Pharmaco - Psychometric measurements.
Arzneim - Forsch. 35, 1459 - 1465, 1985.
. ECKMANN and
Kontrollierte Doppelblind - Studie zum Wirksamkeittsnachweis von Tebonin, forte bei Partienten mit zerebrovaskulärer Insuffizienz Fortsch. Med. 100, 1474 - 1478, 1982.
long - term study of
insufficiency in geriatric patients Clinical trials J. 22, 149 - 156, 1985.
whose treatment is appropriate in this plant.