; al. Robkastanien (Samen)
. Horse Chesnut tree.
Rind and seeds.
The leaves of this tree are composed large - Palma, with 5 - 7 leaflets. The flowers, zigomorfas, with white petals and pink spots, with 3
5 - 8 carpels and stamens, are grouped in inflorescences complex. The fruit is
capsule thick and thorny, usually monosperma.
The species of
grows spontaneously in northern Greece and the Balkans. His presence is very
in parks and avenues. The same goes for the horticultural hybrids obtained by crossing with other
Cotyledons of the seeds contain starch, lipids and derivatives flavones,
the components are the most studied saponosides. The same applies to the proantocianidoles tegument seminal. As for the crust, the main ingredients are heterósidos coumarin, of which the most important thing is the schools, the esculetol glucoside, which is
, are derived from Olean - 12 (13) ene, representing 10% of the total
of the drug. Whole is called ESCIN. Its structures are complex and stem from two Genina polihidroxiladas: the protoescigenina (hydroxymethyl 4) and barringtogenol -
(methylated in 4) In both cases, the hydroxyl side in 21 and 22 are esterified by aliphatic acids (acetic,
and Z - methyl - 2 oic 2buten) The hydroxyl in 3 is part of
link with the hydroxyl hemiacetal 1 in an acid glucuronic establishing
non - linear trisaccharides. Along with the ESCIN have been isolated from cytotoxic, esters of barrigenol - R1 and barringtogenol -
This is oligomers of 3 - R (epicatecol:
dimers connected by
) for two links (A2, A5) trimer simple (C1) esculitaninos AG. All have in
chain of the type "A" (4ß? 8 ', 2ß? O? 7')
The bark of the tree is rich in cumarinas (2 - 3%) especially in schools, accompanied by fraxósido and flavonoids.
The pharmacology of the factors
been widely studied. Its main activities include an increase in
resistance, decreased capillary permeability and an anti - inflammatory action.
reabsorbe badly at the
tract, is anti - inflammatory as evidenced by numerous experiments on the leg of
rat which causes
different players irritant edema on the generalized edema with ovalbumin (ip) and on the
edema caused derivative of tin. ESCIN acts in the initial phase of inflammation. These experiments show that ESCIN opposes the formation of edema (antiexudativa action) It is possible to normalize the permeability of the vessel wall that is enhanced by inflammation, also
possible action adrenal
. The results are better if the administration is for illustrative purposes only prophylactic.
The ESCIN (5 - 10 mg / ml) increases venous tone (
vein of rabbit saphenous human) Their action is inhibited by indomethacin. This
could be linked to an increase in the synthesis of prostaglandin F2a. Injected in rats by ip, increases in plasma ACTH and corticosterona, no doubt due to
pituitary stimulation. On the other hand,
shown that this saponosides increases capillary resistance and
significant diuretic properties.
The esculósido reduces the permeability of the capillaries and increases their resilience.
Observations on the Man.
and ESCIN been used
lot of time in therapy, having conducted numerous studies and observations with this molecule. These studies confirm their action antiexudativa and antiedematosa in several areas:
, bruises and brain edema,
, varicose vein and other pathologies.
double - blind trial showed that the daily per os administration of
extract reduces the
of enzymes responsible for the degradation of proteoglycan, ensuring the cohesion of the vessel walls in patients with varicose veins untreated, these enzymes lisosomial - of -
is used to
significant degree of preparations Galenical (excerpts, criomolturados, gels) alone or in partnership, in the treatment of the subjective venous insufficiency and the functional
of the capillary fragility, as well as the treatment of
symptoms. The ESCIN are advised orally (40 - 60 mg / day) in the treatment of insufficient venolinfática and in the hemorrhoidal crisis. By strictly intravenously, the escinato be advised of
(10 mg / day) as antiedematoso in proctología, Phlebology (
ulcers) in surgery and traumatology. The toxicity of saponosides is not negligible,
the therapeutic safety is important and good
. His administration via i. v. is contraindicated during
In Spain authorizing the use of this plant for the treatment of manifestations of venous insufficiency and hemorrhoidal symptoms. Treatment of cutaneous capillary fragility, as petechiae (Cardinals) and so on. Antihaemorrhagics.
, reabsorption of edema, thrombophlebitis, varicose ulcers.
at night. Preventive
Contraindicated in renal
. The bark of horse
no side effect. The seed, for its content ESCIN can cause severe poisoning. In the latter case
recommended for use under strict clinical control.
The seeds of
, contained in
capsule globulosa, thorny and dehiscent, are more or less globose or ovoid and are fitted with
seed coat. The bars form
large white stain. The two cotyledons, fleshy, oily and starchy, are well - soldiers. The
is unpleasant. Flavonoids and saponosides can be studied through CCF of the tincture can be utilized different valuation methods: colorimetry after extraction, Densitometric in crude extract.
R. R. PARIS
. et Moyse.
Summary of Matter Médicale, Masson, 2, 2nd ed.
. 310 - 313, Paris, 1981.
Saponins with biological and pharmacological
. In: New
products and plant drugs with pharmacological, biological or Therapeutical
. WAGNER and
. WOLFF, eds. Berlin, Springer - Verlag,
. 177 - 196, 1977.
. KONOSHIMA -
Antitumor agents, 82. Cytotoxic sapogenols from
J. Nat. Prod. 49, 650 - 656, 1986.
S. MORIMOTO, G. I. Nonaka and I. Nishioka.
Tannins and related compounds. LIX. Aesculitannins, proanthocyanidins with novel doubly - bonded structures from
Chem. Pharm. Bull. 35, 4717 - 4729, 1987.
R. W. HEMINGWAY, L. Y. FOO and L. J. PORTER.
Linkage isomerism in trimeric and polymeric 2, 3 - cis - procyanidins.
J. Chem. Soc. Perkin I, 1209 - 1216, 1982.
Les Dérivés du marronnier d'Inde dans le traitement des maladies vasculaire.
Plantes Méd. Phytother. 11, 174 - 180, 1977.
. J. JACK.
Zur Pharmakologie der Rosskastanie.
Zbl. Pharm. 116, 959 - 968, 1977.
J. Totta and
. J. VLIETINCK.
Produits et Phytothérapeutique
J. Pharm. Belg. 41, 330 - 361, 1983.
. OMINI, S. NICOSIA and
The mode of action of aescin on isolated veins:
relationship with the 2nd PGF.
Pharmacol. Res. Commun. 10, 145 - 152, 1978.
. Yokoyama and
Effect of ESCIN on adrenocorticotropin and plasma corticosterone levels in Rat.
Chem. Pharm. Bull. 29, 490 - 494, 1981; see also:
YOKOHAMA et al. Yakugata Zasshi, 102, 555 - 559, 1982.
. W. KREYSEL,
. NISSEN and
possible role of lysosomal enzymes in the pathogenesis of Varicosis and the reduction in their serum
by Venostatin ®.
VASA, 12, 377 - 382, 1983.
. BISLER, R. PFEIFER, N. KLÜKEN and Zwerg.
Die Klinische Wirksamkeit eines ödelprotektiven Aescin - haltigen. Venen - Therapeutikums.
Z. für Phytother. 9, 1 - 6, 1988.
M. WICHTL, "Roßkastaniensamen, " in DAB 9 - Kommentar, Deutsches Arzneibuch,
. et HARTKE
. MUTSCHLER, eds. Stuttgart, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellshaft mbH, 3,
. 3008 - 3013, 1986.
M. VANHAELEN et R. VANHAELEN - FASTRÉ.
Quantitative determination of biologically active constituents in crude medicinal plant extracts by thin - layer chromatograpphy densitometry.
J. Chromatogr. 281) 263 - 271, 1983.
whose treatment is appropriate in this plant.